This 2017 report is based on interviews with individuals at three maximum-security prisons in California. Researchers found that people formerly held in indefinite solitary confinement in California’s Security Housing Units (SHUs) face continuing mental health consequences even after they are
This brief by the Vera Institute of Justice provides an overview of the vast body of research on the harmful impacts of solitary confinement on incarcerated people, corrections staff, and the broader community.
This factsheet from Solitary Watch highlights the psychological harms of restrictive housing and its failure to reduce violence in prisons.
This article from Psychology Today examines the negative impacts of solitary confinement on the brain.
This report examines the harmful impacts of solitary confinement on incarcerated peoples’ physical health by using a mixed-methods approach.
Ramin Skibba, “Solitary Confinement Screws Up the Brains of Prisoners,” Newsweek, April 18, 2017, https://www.newsweek.com/2017/04/28/solitary-confinement-prisoners-behave-badly-screws-brains-585541.html This article published in Newsweek argues that solitary confinement harms the brain by analyzing studies done on isolated rodents. These studies find that over time, rats
This section in the WHO Guide to Prisons and Health examines how solitary confinement in prisons is a health issue due to its physical and psychological impacts on incarcerated people.
This study analyzes results from a systematic survey of 131 incarcerated people in supermax prisons in Washington State.
This Journal of Prisoners on Prisons article provides a critique of changes to the disciplinary process in the Wisconsin Department of Corrections
Craig Haney, “Infamous punishment: The psychological effects of isolation,” National Prison Project Journal, 8, no. 2 (1993), 3-21 This journal article published by the National Prison Project confronts the inhumane conditions of solitary confinement in U.S. prisons and examines the psychological impacts of
This article details the rise and prevalence of disciplinary lockdown in New York state and the United States, including “keeplock,” Special Housing Units, and High-Tech Lockdown Facilities.