Craig Haney. “Restricting the Use of Solitary Confinement.” The Annual Review of Criminology no. 1 (2018): 285- 310.
A robust scientiﬁc literature has established the negative psychological effects of solitary conﬁnement. The empirical findings are supported by a theoretical framework that underscores the importance of social contact to psychological as well as physical well-being. In essence, human beings have a basic need to establish and maintain connections to others and the deprivation of opportunities to do so has a range of deleterious consequences. These scientiﬁc conclusions, as well as concerns about the high cost and lack of any demonstrated penological purpose that solitary conﬁnement reliably serves, have led to an emerging consensus among correctional as well as professional, mental health, legal, and human rights organizations to drastically limit the practice.
Keywords: solitary confinement, prison isolation, restrictive housing, segregation, conditions of confinement, segregated housing and mental health